Devor, M. in Wall and Melzack’s Textbook of Pain 5th edn (eds McMahon, S. B. & Koltzenburg, M.) 905–927 (Churchill Livingstone, 2006).
Campbell, J. N. & Meyer, R. A. Mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Neuron 52, 77–92 (2006).
Finnerup, N. B., Kuner, R. & Jensen, T. S. Neuropathic pain: from mechanisms to treatment. Physiol. Rev. 101, 259–301 (2021).
Campbell, J. N., Raja, S. N., Meyer, R. A. & Mackinnon, S. E. Myelinated afferents signal the hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. Pain 32, 89–94 (1988).
Dhandapani, R. et al. Control of mechanical pain hypersensitivity in mice through ligand-targeted photoablation of TrkB-positive sensory neurons. Nat. Commun. 9, 1640 (2018).
Tashima, R. et al. Optogenetic activation of non-nociceptive Aβ fibers induces neuropathic pain-like sensory and emotional behaviors after nerve injury in rats. eNeuro 5, https://doi.org/10.1523/eneuro.0450-17.2018 (2018).
Moehring, F., Halder, P., Seal, R. P. & Stucky, C. L. Uncovering the cells and circuits of touch in normal and pathological settings. Neuron 100, 349–360 (2018).
Ji, R.-R. & Strichartz, G. Cell signaling and the genesis of neuropathic pain. Sci. STKE 2004, re14 (2004).
Beggs, S., Trang, T. & Salter, M. W. P2X4R+ microglia drive neuropathic pain. Nat. Neurosci. 15, 1068–1073 (2012).
Ji, R. R., Donnelly, C. R. & Nedergaard, M. Astrocytes in chronic pain and itch. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 20, 667–685 (2019).
Chen, G., Zhang, Y. Q., Qadri, Y. J., Serhan, C. N. & Ji, R. R. Microglia in pain: detrimental and protective roles in pathogenesis and resolution of pain. Neuron 100, 1292–1311 (2018).
Cheng, L. et al. Identification of spinal circuits involved in touch-evoked dynamic mechanical pain. Nat. Neurosci. 20, 804–814 (2017).
Peirs, C. et al. Dorsal horn circuits for persistent mechanical pain. Neuron 87, 797–812 (2015).
Coull, J. A. et al. BDNF from microglia causes the shift in neuronal anion gradient underlying neuropathic pain. Nature 438, 1017–1021 (2005).
Foster, E. et al. Targeted ablation, silencing, and activation establish glycinergic dorsal horn neurons as key components of a spinal gate for pain and itch. Neuron 85, 1289–1304 (2015).
Kuner, R. & Flor, H. Structural plasticity and reorganisation in chronic pain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18, 20–30 (2016).
Burnett, M. G. & Zager, E. L. Pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury: a brief review. Neurosurg. Focus 16, E1 (2004).
Griffin, J. W., Pan, B., Polley, M. A., Hoffman, P. N. & Farah, M. H. Measuring nerve regeneration in the mouse. Exp. Neurol. 223, 60–71 (2010).
Jessen, K. R., Mirsky, R. & Lloyd, A. C. Schwann cells: development and role in nerve repair. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 7, a020487 (2015).
Bolívar, S., Navarro, X. & Udina, E. Schwann cell role in selectivity of nerve regeneration. Cells 9, 2131 (2020).
Taylor, K. S., Anastakis, D. J. & Davis, K. D. Chronic pain and sensorimotor deficits following peripheral nerve injury. Pain 151, 582–591 (2010).
Peleshok, J. C. & Ribeiro-da-Silva, A. Delayed reinnervation by nonpeptidergic nociceptive afferents of the glabrous skin of the rat hindpaw in a neuropathic pain model. J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 49–63 (2011).
Kerr, J. N. & Denk, W. Imaging in vivo: watching the brain in action. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 195–205 (2008).
Basbaum, A. I., Bautista, D. M., Scherrer, G. & Julius, D. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pain. Cell 139, 267–284 (2009).
Agarwal, N., Offermanns, S. & Kuner, R. Conditional gene deletion in primary nociceptive neurons of trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. Genesis 38, 122–129 (2004).
Decosterd, I. & Woolf, C. J. Spared nerve injury: an animal model of persistent peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain 87, 149–158 (2000).
Djouhri, L., Fang, X., Koutsikou, S. & Lawson, S. N. Partial nerve injury induces electrophysiological changes in conducting (uninjured) nociceptive and nonnociceptive DRG neurons: possible relationships to aspects of peripheral neuropathic pain and paresthesias. Pain 153, 1824–1836 (2012).
Song, Y. et al. The mechanosensitive ion channel piezo inhibits axon regeneration. Neuron 102, 373–389 (2019).
Zigmond, R. E. & Echevarria, F. D. Macrophage biology in the peripheral nervous system after injury. Prog. Neurobiol. 173, 102–121 (2019).
Monk, K. R., Feltri, M. L. & Taveggia, C. New insights on Schwann cell development. Glia 63, 1376–1393 (2015).
Weinstein, B. M. Vessels and nerves: marching to the same tune. Cell 120, 299–302 (2005).
Abraira, V. E. & Ginty, D. D. The sensory neurons of touch. Neuron 79, 618–639 (2013).
Fleming, M. S. & Luo, W. The anatomy, function, and development of mammalian Aβ low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Front. Biol. 8, 408–420 (2013).
Neubarth, N. L. et al. Meissner corpuscles and their spatially intermingled afferents underlie gentle touch perception. Science 368, eabb2751 (2020).
Dogiel, A. S. Die Nervenendigunden in Meissnerschen tasktköperen. Monthly Int. J. Anat. Physiol. 9, 76–85 (1892).
Cauna, N. Nerve supply and nerve endings in Meissner’s corpuscles. Am. J. Anat. 99, 315–350 (1956).
Johansson, O., Fantini, F. & Hu, H. Neuronal structural proteins, transmitters, transmitter enzymes and neuropeptides in human Meissner’s corpuscles: a reappraisal using immunohistochemistry. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 291, 419–424 (1999).
Paré, M., Elde, R., Mazurkiewicz, J. E., Smith, A. M. & Rice, F. L. The Meissner corpuscle revised: a multiafferented mechanoreceptor with nociceptor immunochemical properties. J. Neurosci. 21, 7236–7246 (2001).
Ishida-Yamamoto, A., Senba, E. & Tohyama, M. Calcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers in Meissner’s corpuscles of rats: an immunohistochemical analysis. Brain Res. 453, 362–366 (1988).
Seal, R. P. et al. Injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity requires C-low threshold mechanoreceptors. Nature 462, 651–655 (2009).
Delfini, M.-C. et al. TAFA4, a chemokine-like protein, modulates injury-induced mechanical and chemical pain hypersensitivity in mice. Cell Rep. 5, 378–388 (2013).
Abrahamsen, B. et al. The cell and molecular basis of mechanical, cold, and inflammatory pain. Science 321, 702–705 (2008).
Rivers, W. H. R. & Head, H. A human experiment in nerve division. Brain 31, 323–450 (1908).
Compston, A. A human experiment in nerve division by W. H. R. Rivers MD FRS, Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge and Henry Head MD FRS, Physician to the London Hospital, Brain 1908: 31; 323–450. Brain 132, 2903–2905 (2009).
Woolf, C. J., Shortland, P. & Coggeshall, R. E. Peripheral nerve injury triggers central sprouting of myelinated afferents. Nature 355, 75–78 (1992).
Bogen, O., Alessandri-Haber, N., Chu, C., Gear, R. W. & Levine, J. D. Generation of a pain memory in the primary afferent nociceptor triggered by PKCε activation of CPEB. J. Neurosci. 32, 2018–2026 (2012).
Calvo, M., Dawes, J. M. & Bennett, D. L. The role of the immune system in the generation of neuropathic pain. Lancet Neurol. 11, 629–642 (2012).
Usoskin, D. et al. Unbiased classification of sensory neuron types by large-scale single-cell RNA sequencing. Nat. Neurosci. 18, 145–153 (2015).
Abdo, H. et al. Specialized cutaneous Schwann cells initiate pain sensation. Science 365, 695–699 (2019).
Rinwa, P. et al. Demise of nociceptive Schwann cells causes nerve retraction and pain hyperalgesia. Pain 162, 1816–1827 (2021).
Maksimovic, S. et al. Epidermal Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells that tune mammalian touch receptors. Nature 509, 617–621 (2014).
Woo, S. H. et al. Piezo2 is required for Merkel-cell mechanotransduction. Nature 509, 622–626 (2014).
Arcourt, A. et al. Touch receptor-derived sensory information alleviates acute pain signaling and fine-tunes nociceptive reflex coordination. Neuron 93, 179–193 (2017).
Melzack, R. & Wall, P. D. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 150, 971–979 (1965).
Prescott, S. A., Ma, Q. & De Koninck, Y. Normal and abnormal coding of somatosensory stimuli causing pain. Nat. Neurosci. 17, 183–191 (2014).
Duan, B., Cheng, L. & Ma, Q. Spinal circuits transmitting mechanical pain and itch. Neurosci. Bull. 34, 186–193 (2018).
Liu, Y. et al. Touch and tactile neuropathic pain sensitivity are set by corticospinal projections. Nature 561, 547–550 (2018).
Hippenmeyer, S. et al. A developmental switch in the response of DRG neurons to ETS transcription factor signaling. PLoS Biol. 3, e159 (2005).
Gangadharan, V. et al. Peripheral calcium-permeable AMPA receptors regulate chronic inflammatory pain in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 121, 1608–1623 (2011).
Buch, T. et al. A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration. Nat. Methods 2, 419–426 (2005).
Theer, P. & Denk, W. On the fundamental imaging-depth limit in two-photon microscopy. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3139–3149 (2006).
Lowe, D. G. Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60, 91–110 (2004).
Bay, H., Tuytelaars, T. & Van Gool, L. SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features. In Proc. 9th European Conference on Computer Vision (eds Leonardis, A., Bischof, H. & Pinz, A.) 404–417 (Springer, 2006).
Wahba, G. Spline Models for Observational Data (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1990).
Picelli, S. et al. Full-length RNA-seq from single cells using Smart-seq2. Nat. Protoc. 9, 171–181 (2014).
Hennig, B. P. et al. Large-scale low-cost NGS library preparation using a robust Tn5 purification and tagmentation protocol. G3 8, 79–89 (2018).
Dobin, A. et al. STAR: ultrafast universal RNA-seq aligner. Bioinformatics 29, 15–21 (2013).
Love, M. I., Huber, W. & Anders, S. Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2. Genome Biol. 15, 550 (2014).
Bauer, S & Gagneur, J. Mgsa: Model-based gene set analysis. R version 1.42.0 https://github.com/sba1/mgsa-bioc (2021).
Jew, B. et al. Accurate estimation of cell composition in bulk expression through robust integration of single-cell information. Nat. Commun. 11, 1971 (2020).
Hua, Y., Laserstein, P. & Helmstaedter, M. Large-volume en-bloc staining for electron microscopy-based connectomics. Nat. Commun. 6, 7923 (2015).
Denk., W. & Horstmann, H. Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to reconstruct three-dimensional tissue nanostructure. PLoS Biol. 2, e329 (2004).
Karimi, A., Odenthal, J., Drawitsch, F., Boergens, K. M. & Helmstaedter, M. Cell-type specific innervation of cortical pyramidal cells at their apical dendrites. eLife 9, e46876 (2020).
Motta, A. et al. Dense connectomic reconstruction in layer 4 of the somatosensory cortex. Science 366, eaay3134 (2019).
Boergens, K. et al. webKnossos: efficient online 3D data annotation for connectomics. Nat. Methods 14, 691–694 (2017).
Selvaraj, D. et al. A functional role for VEGFR1 expressed in peripheral sensory neurons in cancer pain. Cancer Cell 27, 780–796 (2015).
Schweizerhof, M. et al. Hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors mediate tumor-nerve interactions and bone cancer pain. Nat. Med. 15, 802–807 (2009).